get rid


do you know

there are 1.5 to 5 million fungal

species on the planet earth

and out of those more than 85 species

live on our skin

like many microbes there are helpful

fungi and harmful fungi

when harmful fungi invade the body they

can be difficult to kill

as they can survive in the environment

and re-infect the person trying to get


there are several types of fungal

infections that can affect your skin

and many people suffer from fungal

infections at least once in their life

a recent population based survey

reported that these infections are

rarely managed properly

and the prevalence of fungal skin

infections is expected to reach

20 to 25 percent of the world's

population in coming decades

although there are number of fungi that

can cause superficial skin fungal


like candida malassezia etc but the most

common of them belong to a group known

as dermatophytes

dermatophytes are mainly composed of

three species of fungi

the trichophyton epidermophyten and


and together they can cause more than 60

to 80 percent of superficial skin

infections in humans

the infection that these dermatophytes

cause is known as dermatophytosis

also known as tinia tinea is derived

from the latin

which stands for worm because formerly

it was considered to be an infection

caused by a worm-like parasite

hence it is still more commonly known as


ring-shaped red rash is seen that's

where it gets its name

the ringworm so in this video we will

talk about some of these superficial

fungal skin infections

caused by dermatophytes various measures

that you can do to prevent them in the

first place

and then we will discuss how to treat

them and prevent their reoccurrence

we will also discuss some of the

lifestyle modifications you can do to

prevent such

infections if you want to jump straight

to the treatment part

you can do so by scrolling through the

timeline of the video below

and in the coming videos we will also be

discussing about the infections caused

by candida

and malassezia so make sure to subscribe

and press the bell icon so you don't

miss out on those videos

now let's understand how these fungi

damage our skin and cause infection

the spores from these fungi penetrate

the skin through scratching

or small cuts on the skin these pores

get embedded in the skin

and there can be various factors that

promote the growth of these fungus pores

in our skin

the alkaline ph wet and warm skin


poor hygiene contact with pets all are

favorable for the growth of these fungi

when i use the term superficial fungal


it means that the infection is present

only in the top most layers of the skin

as many of you may know our skin

contains four to five layers depending

upon the region of the body

these dermatophytes only affect the

topmost layer of the skin known as

stratum corneum

this layer usually consists of dead

cells in which keratin is present

these fungi break down the keratin

present in your stratum corneum

by producing an enzyme known as


and they use that as their food this


inflammation in the skin which occurs

due to an allergic reaction in the skin

against these fungal products our

defense cells start releasing chemicals

that cause inflammation which is the

redness and itching in the infected area

these fungi can not only affect the

keratinized layers of the skin

but also the keratinized layers of our

hair and nails

these layers also contain keratin which

is used by these fungi and this leads to

an infection of the hair and nails

now let's look at the risk factors and

causes which makes a person susceptible

to tinea infections

excessive sweating in areas like groins

underarms can be an important risk


environmental conditions like hot and

humid temperatures provide

more favorable conditions for these

organisms to grow

if you are keeping your body parts wet

for longer durations

the chances of getting these superficial

fungal infection increases

unexposed body parts like feet scalp

skin areas between the toes and fingers

are more susceptible as you keep them


with shoes and clothes they are left

warm and wet which causes these areas to

become a suitable ground

for the breeding of these fungal


improper hygienic conditions of your

household like infected clothes

blankets bed linens or contaminated

places like doorknobs

can also act as a source of infection

now all people are not equally


it depends upon the immunity of the

individual and the ph of the skin

alkaline ph favors the growth of the


people who are low in a certain type of

proteins known as defensins

which is a type of immunity providing

protein are more susceptible to these


and persons already suffering from some

underlying disease like diabetes

have higher rate of fungal infections as

compared to normal healthy individuals

these infections also occur more in

people with an immunocompromised state

it simply means that a person's immune

system cannot fight from infections

such individuals mostly are aids

patients or people who had undergone

some organ transplant surgeries

these organisms frequently attack such

type of individuals

people who take steroidal medications

for some other underlying conditions

like asthma are also frequently seen to

have these infections

younger and older people are affected

more as compared to healthy young adults

now let's talk about the different types

of teenia infections

tinea can be of various types depending

upon the location

of the infection on the body most common

infections include tinier pedis

which is a fungal infection of feet we

have teenia capitis

which is a fungal infection of the scalp

tinea angium

which is fungal infection of nails we

also have teniacrurus which is very

common and it is a fungal infection

occurring in folds of our skin like our


groin and between the hips and similarly

we have teenia corporis which is a

fungal infection involving parts of the


not covered with hair tinia barbae is a

fungal infection of the beard

and we have teenia amintatia which is a

thick sticky fungal infection of scalp

following infection or trauma

now let's look at some of these tinier

infections which are very common

in more detail and the first one we are

going to talk about

is tinea pedis pdfs in latin stands for


and it is the most common dermatophyte

fungal infection

this fungal infection usually begins

between the toes

it is commonly known as athlete's foot

because athletes like runners and

football players are frequently affected

by these infections

it is commonly seen in people with

excessive sweating in their feet

while confined within tight fitting

shoes it spreads very easily from one

person to another

that's why we must avoid each other's


socks and other clothes

it is often self diagnosed as you can

see the symptoms by yourself

you can see those areas become red and

very itchy

it almost feels satisfying when you keep

scratching those areas between your toes

the skin between your toes seems moist

all the time

and this can also lead to development of

a foul smell from your feet

another common example of teenage

infection is tinea capitis

and it is a major issue as it sometimes

causes permanent baldness

that's why it's very important to

understand it capitis stands for scalp

so it is a fungal infection affecting

the scalp area and develops

inside the hair follicles and skin of

the scalp

if you are using each other's combs you

can get these infections very easily

you can also acquire these infections

frequently from your pets

its symptoms are very straightforward

and the diagnosis is also based on the

examination of the scalp

you can experience a very itchy and

sometimes a painful scalp

the hair becomes brittle they lose their

shine and break very easily upon

minimal plucking you can also experience

low grade fever

more severe forms are presented with pus

coming out

and permanent bald spots and scarring

which is stressful

both mentally and aesthetically

the diagnosis is made by examining those


on a scalp under uv woods lamp

your doctor can also take samples of

your hair to examine them under the


and some of the samples from the skin of

scalp to confirm the diagnosis

now let's look at another superficial

fungal infection known as tiniacroris

which is very very common the word kura

signifies legs

but the infection that we are going to

talk about does not occur on the legs

but in between the legs that is the

groin area

it affects the skin of the genitals

inner thighs

and sometimes buttocks this condition is

known as jock itch

this condition is common in people who

wear tight clothing

tight clothing traps moisture and favors

the growth of this fungus

symptoms of tinea crew race include

severe itching in the groin area

the area becomes red and often a

ring-shaped rash develops in the area

we will look at other types of teenia

like tinia angum and tina barbe in

separate videos

so make sure to subscribe to mad

simplified and hit the bell icon

so you don't miss out on those videos

now we will look at the treatment part

of these

tenure infections especially the tinia

pedis tina cruris antinea corporis

because fungi thrive in moist warm


patients should be encouraged to wear

loose fitting garments made of cotton or

synthetic materials

designed to wick moisture away from the


socks should also have similar


areas likely to become infected should

be dried completely

covering with clothes patients should be

advised to

avoid walking barefoot and sharing


if we look at the treatment itself it

can be divided into topical antifungals

which are applied over the skin and oral


topical medication includes soaps body


lotions creams and gels we will look at


one by one and see which one is best for


topical antifungals are the first line

of treatment for many patients of tener


tiniacroris as well as tineapedius

the most effective topical antifungals

include drugs like azoles

which include clottamazole ketoconazole

oxyconazole and certaconazole we also

have allylamines

like terminofin and butanophane and we

have newer antifungals like


and selenium sulphide which are also

very effective

now you can start the treatment with a

soap or body wash

containing clotter muscle one percent or

ketoconazole two percent

and use that to wash your body every day

you can also use cyclopiroxolamine or

selenium sulphide washes especially if

you are having fungal infections of the

scalp or hair

when you apply the soap or the body wash

make sure to leave it on for a few

minutes before you wash it off

so as to have the maximum anti-fungal


next we move on to the antifungal creams


or lotions you should use again

similar antifungal drugs are present in

these creams and lotions

like ketoconazole two percent

chlortremazole one percent

laliconazole one percent eberconazole or


selenium sulphide two point five percent

lotion and cyclopirox one percent cream

are also very effective

you can apply these creams and lotions

twice daily

once in the morning and once before


i have provided the links to some of the

best anti-fungal soaps

body washes creams and lotions in the

description box

down below so make sure to check them


as per my experience as a dermatologist

i have found lalikunazole one percent


selenium sulfide and cycloperoxolamine

creams to be quite effective in the

treatment of tinea cruris

and tinea corporis

the treatment with these topical drugs

should be continued for a minimum

of four weeks if you have a mild


and if you have a severe infection

involving larger areas of skin

or fungal infection that reoccurs after

you stop the treatment

you should continue the topical

treatment for at least 6

to 8 weeks

now let's talk about the oral antifungal

drugs that we use for the treatment of


oral antifungal drugs are indicated in

case of extensive

involvement of the skin and in patients

who fail to respond to the topical

therapy such as creams and lotions now

there are three main fda approved

anti-fungal drugs

the benefit itraconazole and fluconazole

these drugs act by inhibiting certain


that are very important for the fungi to

synthesize their cell wall

without a proper cell wall these fungi

cannot grow

and they soon die out of these three

fluconazole is mainly indicated for the

treatment of vaginal candidiasis

oropharyngeal candidiasis and esophageal


while etraconazole and turbinafine are

mainly used for the treatment of teenia

and we will focus on them etraconazole

is available in 100 milligram

200 milligram and 400 milligram dosages

for teenia crores usually 100 milligram


twice a day or 200 milligram dose once a


for two weeks is the minimum you should

take this drug

terminofeen has been used for tinea

corporis antina crores

at 250 milligram tablet daily

for two to four weeks these drugs are

usually not available over the counter

so you need a prescription from a

dermatologist or else

you can also get a prescription from

many pharmacy websites

which have online consultations with a


while undergoing this treatment make

sure you take proper care of your

hygiene and wash your clothes

regularly with hot water also make sure

to iron your undergarments before

each use as many of the times the fungal

spores can get deposited in our inner

wear clothes

and this can cause frequent relapses and

treatment failures

so that was all about teenia crores

antinea corporis

in the coming videos we will discuss

more about tinea pedis

linear capitis and onychomycosis which

is the fungal infection of the nails

and many other topics related to fungal


as these are such a common problem also

i am going to make some videos regarding

home remedies and natural methods to

treat tinea infections

so make sure to subscribe and hit the

bell icon so you don't miss out on those


thank you so much for watching this

video if you found this video helpful

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bye and see you

in the next video